Pears often come in contact with chemicals that are used in connection with their production, packing, and storage. A small amount of chemical injury may develop when chemicals are used under ideal conditions, but severe injury is likely to result from the careless use of pesticides, unfavorable weather conditions after orchard sprays, or the accidental exposure of fruits to toxic substances. Fruits that incur chemical injuries in the orchard are usually removed when the fruits are packed and are not likely to be found on the market. However, fruits chemically injured during packing, storage, and transportation are frequently found in the market. Similarities in the response of fruits to chemical injury make it difficult to determine the cause of the injury unless the history of the fruit is known. Several materials may cause identical injuries to the lenticels, while higher concentrations of some of the same chemicals, or some entirely different ones, may kill and discolor large areas of the skin or even penetrate the flesh.
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